In Hellenistic and Roman times, people got up in the sunshine and after doing their morning prayers, they left for work. With sunset, they returned to the house, ate and went to bed. Very few people were sleeping in bed after the sunshine. Because for them, to live means to be awake. Apart from birthdays, acceptance of a child into the family, acceptance of a boy as a man, dies or holidays, they had continued to live like this. In the city, life was a little different. Because there were many different social events. Like participating in state administration, participating in session and debates on certain topics, music, theater and sports. At the base of astrology, the year was divided by 12 months. The week was also divided by 7 depending on the planets. Hipparchos divided 24 hours of day 2. Century before Jesus. But people did not use much in the Hellenistic world. For them, 12 hours with the sun was day, 12 hours with darkness was night. The day had started with the sun. The hour of the sun (Gnamon) was invented in Babylon in the 6th century BC. Along with the relationship between Hellenes and Eastern World, it was brought to the Hellenistic world in the same years it had started to use. The hour of the sun formed by 12 lines traces on a block of convex marble (polo shirts) and a bronze wand (Gnamon) was drawn together of the linesBetween two lines was symbolized the duration of one hour. The wand shadow had shown us the time. In the first 12 Hellenistic letters had meant hours. Like Alpha, Beta, Gamma etc.)
After sunset, it was not possible to learn the time. In the name of Klepsydra (hourglass), the water hour was used in wealthy homes from the last quarter of the 5th century A.J. The Romans started the day at midnight (00:00). They divided the period after sunshine by 3 divisions: MANE (in the morning), the part between 3. Time and 6. ANTE MERIDIEN time (before noon), between 6. Hour and 10. DE MERIDIEN time (noon, afternoon), from 10. Time until SUPREMA sunset (evening). From the sun at the end of 7. Time, MERIDIATIO was starting, it was the hour of rest. For 1 hour, either a slave or a lord, all the Romans were resting.
The courts began with DE MERIDIEN. Daytime hours were indicated with the hour of the sun (Gnamon) from 3rd centuries BC, from 159 AD as the water hour (Klepsydra). They used the water hour during the rainy and foggy days. This hour formed by a glass cylinder, the hours were indicated by traces. What they had water time so she was a symbol of wealth. In Roman times, from Julius Caesar (46 BC) they had started using the Gregorian calendar. The names of the months were Januarius = January, Febraruaris = February, Martius = March, Aprilis = April, Maius = May, Junius = June, Julius = July, August = August, September = September, October = October, November = November, December = December. The names of the days of the week, they are put by the names of the planets and symbolize the gods. First day of the week was Sunday (Solis = the day of the sun), 2.day was Monday (Lunae = the day of the moon), 3. Day was Tuesday (Martis = the day of March), 4.day was Wednesday (Mercurii = the day of mercury), 5.day was Thursday (Iove = Jupiter’s day), 6. Day was Friday (Veneris = the day of Venus), 7. Day was Saturday (Saturni = the day of Saturn)
One day in Roman times, a lord would rise with the sunshine, accept greetings from the children and slaves, and all together he made them pray. After giving the orders of the day’s work to the slaves and the householder, he began to accept his visitors and clients. Visitors greeted the lord by raising his right hand and saying AVE DOMINE, if he was a respectable visitor then the lord had accepted his greeting with a wave of the hand. Towards the end of times of empire, visitors and slaves alike bowed at the feet of the lord, kissing their hand.
Wealthy families had a large farm called LATIFENDIUM. The workers of this farm were called METAYER who greeted their lord by saying DOMINUS and they presented the farm foods. The bosses also carried the gifts for them.
The life of the Roman city was more colorful than the Hellenes. There were more parties at the Roman. The holidays were like; Compitalia (between January 3-5, the days of the gods), Matronalia (January 11, the women’s day), Caristia (February 22, the day of loving Cognates), Fortuna Virilis (April 1, the day of luck of men), Floralia (at the beginning of May, the spring festival), Bona Dea (June 11, the fertility day), Vinalia (August 19, the wine festival), Saturnalia (between December 17-19, the gods). Apart from all of them, the day of celebrating donning the gown for men was very important. Also that day, they sacrificed the animals, gave the gifts and made the feast.