ef’-e-sus (Ephesos, “desirable”): A town of the Roman province of Asia, close to the mouth of the Cayster stream, three miles from the western coast of Asia Minor, and opposite the island of Samos. With synthetic harbor accessible to the most important ships, and rivaling the harbor at Miletus, standing at the doorway of the natural depression that reaches so much into the inside of Asia Minor, and connected by highways with the chief cities of the province, the city was the foremost simply accessible town in Asia, each by land and ocean. Its location, therefore, favored its non secular, political and business development, and conferred the most advantageous field for the missionary labors of Paul. the town stood upon the sloping sides and the bottom of 2 hills, particle and Coressus, commanding a fine-looking view; its climate was exceptionally fine, and also the soil of the natural depression was outstandingly fertile.
Tradition says that in early times close to the place where the mother deity of the world was born, the Amazons designed a town and a temple during which they could worship. this tiny town of the Amazons, bearing at totally different times the names of Samorna, Trachea, Ortygia andPtelea, flourished till within the early Greek days it aroused the greed of Androcles, an aristocrat of Athens. He captured it and created it a Greek town. Still another tradition says that Androclus was its founder. However, underneath Greek rule the Greek civilization bit by bit supplanted that of the orientals, the Greek language was spoken in situ of the Asiatic; and also the Asiatic deity of the temple assumed additional or less the character of a greek Greek deity. Ephesus, therefore, and everyone that pertained to that, was a mix of oriental and Greek although the first history of the town is obscure, it appears that at totally different times it absolutely was within the hands of the Carians, the Leleges, and Ionians; within the early period it absolutely was one amongst a league of twelve Ionian cities. In 560 before Christ, it came into the possession of the Lydians; three years later, in 557, it absolutely was taken by the Persians; and through the subsequent years, the Greeks and Persians were perpetually disputing for its possession. Finally, Alexander the nice took it; and at his death, it fell to Macedonian, the World Health Organization gave it the name of Arsinoe, from his second spouse. Upon the death of Attalus II (Philadelphus), king of Pergamos, it absolutely was bequeathed to the RomanEmpire; and in one hundred ninety, once the Roman province of Asia was fashioned, it became a section of it. Ephesus and Pergamos, the capital of Asia, were the 2 nice rival cities of the province. although Pergamos was the middle of the Roman faith and of the govt, Ephesus was the additional access, the business center and also the home of the native deity Diana; and sense of its wealth and scenario, it bit by bit became the chief town of the province. it’s to the temple of Diana, however, that its nice wealth and prominence square measure for the most part due. just like the town, it dates from the time of the Amazons, however, what the first temple was like we have a tendency to currently don’t have any means that of knowing, and of its history we all know very little except that it absolutely was seven times destroyed by the hearth and remodeled, whenever on a scale larger and grander than before. the rich king Croesus equipped it with several of its stone columns, and also the pilgrims from all the oriental world brought it of their wealth. In time the temple possessed valuable lands; it controlled the fisheries; its monks were the bankers of its huge revenues. due to its strength, the folks hold on there their cash for safe-keeping, and it became to the traditional world much all that the Bank of a European country is to the trendy world. In 356 BC, on the terribly night once Alexander the nice was born, it absolutely was burned; and once he grew to manhood he offered to construct it at his own expense if his name may be inscribed upon its portals. This the monks of Ephesus were unwilling to allow, and that they with courtesy rejected he provide by spoken language that it absolutely was not fitting for one god to make a temple to a different. the rich Ephesians themselves undertook its reconstruction, and 220 years passed before its final completion.
Not solely was the temple of Diana an area of worship, and at reassure-house, however, it had been additionally a deposit during which the most effective statuary and most lovely paintings were preserved. Among the paintings was one by the notable Apelles, a native of Ephesus, representing Alexander the good hurling a thunderbolt. it had been additionally a sanctuary for the criminal, a sort of town of refuge, for none may be inactive for any crime no matter once at intervals a bowshot of its walls. There sprang up, therefore, concerning the temple a village during which the thieves and murderers and alternative criminals created their homes. Not solely did the temple bring immense numbers of pilgrims to town, as will the Caaba at Mecca at this time, however it utilized hosts of individuals with the exception of the clergymen and priestesses; among them were the massive range of artisans UNagency factory-made pictures of the deity Diana, or shrines to sell to the visiting strangers.
Such was Ephesus once Paul on his ordinal missionary journey in Acts (18:19-21) initial visited town, and when, on his third journey(19:8-10; 20:31), he remained there for 2 years preaching within the house ofGod (19:8,10), within the faculty of Tyrannus (19:9) and privately homes(20:20). tho’ Paul was in all probability not the primary to bring Christianity to Ephesus, for Jews had long lived there (2:9; 6:9), he was the primary to form progress against the worship of Diana. because the fame of his teachings was carried by the pilgrims to their distant homes, his influence extended to each part of Anatolia. In time the pilgrims, with decreasing religion in Diana, came in fewer numbers; the sales of the shrines of the deity fell off; Diana of the Ephesians was not great; a Christian church was rounded there and flourished, and one among its initial leaders was the apostle John. Finally in 262AD, once the temple of Diana was once more burned, its influence had to this point departed that it had been nevermore restored. Diana was dead. Ephesus became a Christian town, and in 341 AD a council of the Christian church was command there. the town itself before long lost its importance and faded in population. The sculptured stones of its nice buildings, that were not in use and were falling to ruins, were anxious to reassure the Italian Republic, and particularly to the metropolis for the good church of Saint Sophia. In 1308 the Turks took possession of the insufficient that remained of town and deported or dead its inhabitants. The Cayster watercourse, overflowing its banks, bit by bit coated with its muddy deposit the spot wherever the temple of Diana had once stood, and finally, its terrible website was forgotten. The small village of Ayasaluk, thirty-six miles from the urban center on the Aidin R.R., doesn’t mark the location of the traditional town of Ephesus, however, it stands nearest to its ruins. The nameAyasaluk is that the corruption of 3 Greek words that mean “the Holy Word of God.” Passing on the far side the village one involves the ruins of the recent conduit, the fallen town walls, the questionable church of John or the baths, the Turkish fort that is usually referred to as Paul’s jail, the large theater that was the scene of the riot of Paul’s time, however that currently, with its marble torn away, presents however a hole within the facet of hill article. In 1863 Mr. J.T. Wood, for a land deposit, obtained permission from the Turkish government to look for the location of the lost temple of Diana. throughout the eleven years of his excavations at Ephesus, $80,000 were spent, and few cities of antiquity are a lot of totally explored. town wall of Macedonian was found to be thirty-six,000 ft. in length, introduction the vicinity of one,027 acres. it had been ten 1/2 linear units. thick, and strong by towers at intervals of a hundred linear unit. The six gates that perforate the wall are currently marked by mounds of rubbish. The sites and dimensions of the varied public buildings, the streets, the harbor, and also the foundations of many of the personal homes were observed, and various inscriptions and sculptures and coins were discovered. Search, however, didn’t reveal the location of the temple till Jan one, 1870, when six years of trustworthy work nearly unintentionally it had been then found within the depression outside town walls, many feet below this surface. Its foundation, that alone remained, enabled Mr. Wood to reconstruct the whole temple set up. The temple was engineered upon a foundation that was reached by a flight of 10 steps. The building itself was 425 linear units. long and 220 linear units. wide; every one of its 127 pillars that supported the roof of its colonnade was sixty linear units. high; just like the temples of Balkan state, its interior was receptive to the sky. For an additional description of the temple, see Mr. Wood’s glorious book, Discoveries at Ephesus.