Metropolis is an ancient city located 5 km southwest of İzmir’s Torbalı district, whose foundation dates back to 5000 years ago.
Origin of Name:
Metropolis means “Mother Goddess City”. The sacred cave Μετηρ Δαλλησια (Meter Gallesia), which functions as a cult place belonging to the Mother Goddess (better known as Kybele), is located 5 km from the city. It is located in Uyuzdere Mevkii to the north. A large number of terracotta Mother Goddess figurines were found during archaeological excavations in the cave. In addition, the Mother Goddess depictions on city coins also confirm this view.
History of the City
As a result of archaeological excavations ongoing since 1989, the theater, bouleuterion (parliament structure), stoa (covered promenade), latrina (public toilet), bath-gymnasium complex, Houses with atrium and peristyle (the residential type with a courtyard with columns and a pool in the middle), bath-palaestra complex (wrestling area) were unearthed and restoration work was completed in some of these structures.
During the archaeological excavations carried out in the acropolis of the city, some ceramic pieces belonging to the Early Bronze Age and Middle Bronze Age, stone axes, and a seal contemporary with the Hittite Period were found here.
The Hellenic settlement was established on the acropolis after the 9th century BC, but the city showed its main development in the 3rd century BC. Especially in the 2nd century BC, the city developed under the auspices of the Kingdom of Pergamon, and monumental structures such as theater, bouleuterion and stoa were built during this period. This period, in which an intense urbanization activity was observed, was followed by the Roman Empire Period. In the history scene, the name Metropolis begins to be remembered by the Romans against the Aristonikos rebellion in this period. In this period, rich houses began to be built in the tradition of the Roman Empire.
Metropolis became an episcopal center in Late Antiquity, but a defensive fortress was built in the city, which began to shrink due to wars and economic reasons. From the 14th century, after the Aydınoğulları Principality took over the region, the city of Metropolis came under the administration of the Aydınoğulları Principality, but the city could not survive in its old position and moved to Torbalı. The name Torbalı is the present-day form of the name Metropolis that has been spoken and changed over the centuries. During the Ottoman Period, the region was named as “Kızılhisar”.