Manisa, Turkey is a fourteenth most populous province and the city. According to the 2019 TUIK data, its population is 1,440,611. It is located in the west of the Anatolian Peninsula, in the middle of the Aegean Region. It is neighbors with Uşak and Kütahya from the east, Aydın and Denizli from the south, Balıkesir from the north and İzmir from the west. It is located between 27 ° 08 ‘and 29 ° 05’ east longitudes and 38 ° 04 ‘and 39 ° 58’ north latitudes. It has 17 districts. In terms of the total population, it is the second-largest province and trade center in the Aegean Region after İzmir. It became a metropolitan city with the law number 6360 enacted in 2012. The settlement, also known as the “City of Princes”, is known for its mesir paste, sultana grape, and Manisa Tarzan. It was called “Magnesia” in ancient times and with its full name “Magnesia ad Sipylum” during the Roman Empire. The city is located at the foot of the Spil Mountain. A large part of the Gediz River passes through the provincial borders.
The history of Manisa goes back to the Stone Age. Ancient sources point to the founders of the city, the Magnets living around Mount Pelion in today’s Thessaly region of Greece. When the Magnets migrated to Western Anatolia, they first established Magnesia on the banks of the Menderes River and one branch going further north, Magnesia at the foot of Mount Sipylos. They used the name Magnesia ad Sipylum to distinguish the city of Magnesia from Menderes Magnesia.
Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, and Persians
It is thought that the region was called Arzava during the Hittite period. The most important work of the period is the Kybele Rock Monument. The work belonging to the 13th century BC was made during a Hittite expedition to the region.
The Phrygians, who came to Anatolia through Thrace and the Straits in 1200 BC, dominated most of today’s Manisa lands for a short time from the middle of the 8th century BC.
The capital of the Lydian Kingdom, which ruled around Manisa and Aydın from the end of the Bronze Age until the 6th century BC, is today the city of Sardes, located within the borders of Salihli district. It is the Lydian Kingdom that minted and used the first coin in history. These first coins minted from a gold-silver mixture “electrum” had a lion’s head, the coat of arms of the Lydian Kingdom. Today, tumuli belonging to the Lydians and royal tombs were found in the Bintepeler region, which is between Salihli and Akhisar districts. The King’s Road, the ancient trade route, entered the provincial borders starting from Iran and Mesopotamia and passed through the city of Sardes, the center of the Lydian Kingdom. The Lydian Kingdom was defeated in the war against the Achaemenid Empire in 546 BC, and the capital of the Kingdom, Sardes, was captured and the period of the Lydian Kingdom ended after this defeat.
After Manisa came under the Ottoman rule in 1412, it was called as Saruhan Sanjak and became an administrative unit. The city has become one of the important political education centers where Ottoman princes gained the experience of the sultanate between 1437-1595. In Manisa II. Murad, Fatih Sultan Mehmet, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, II. Selim, III. Murad, III. 16 princes, including the Ottoman sultans who later sat on the throne-like Mehmet and Mustafa I, served as sanjak principalities during these periods. Although Manisa and its environs had a relatively quiet period under Ottoman rule, in the 17th century, rebels such as Kalenderoğlu, Birgili Cennetoğlu, and government officials such as Yusuf Pasha and İlyas Pasha were subjected to attacks and looting. In 1833, Egyptian rule was seen under the command of Kavalalı İbrahim Pasha for a short time.