izmir agora

Smyrna

Smyrna comes from Amazons. Philippos II BC He succeeded in bringing together the Greek city-states in Corinth in 338 and decided to engage in a vengeance war against the Persians from the Corinthian Union. Upon the killing of Philippos II shortly after this decision, BC. Aleksandros III, whose son will go down in history as Alexander the Great in 336, assumed this task. BC Passing to Anatolia over the Dardanelles (Hellespontos) in 334, Alexander passed the Granikos Stream (Kocabaş Stream) and defeated the Persians in the first great war. Following this war, Alexander conquered Sardis, one of the Persians’ Satraplik centers in Western Anatolia, and then all the cities on the Aegean coast fell shortly to him.

It is controversial whether Alexander’s path between Sardis and Ephesos was on the way from Bozdag, the Karabel Pass on Kemalpasa (Nymphaion), or over Smyrna while traveling to Ephesos and south. The source of the debate was that Arrianos (1.17.10) took the Macedonian army in four days, as Herodotos (V, 52 and 54) mentioned earlier, the three-day path between Sardis and Ephesos. The one-day delay here is interpreted as having been found in the capture of Smyrna in Bayraklı. Pausanias, who lived in the 2nd century, tells about the foundation of the city, that the hero is Alexander, and it is another evidence that he came to Smyrna.

The story of Pausanias (VII.5.1) is as follows; “Philippos’s son Aleksandros founded the present city because of a dream he had seen in his sleep; While hunting on Pagos Hill, returning from the hunt, it is said that he came before the temple of Nemesis; there was a spring tree in front of the temple and a plane tree overgrown with its water. While sleeping under the sycamore tree, Nemesis commanded him to appear and set up a city here and take the people of Izmir out of the old city.

According to the story, it is predicted that İskender woke up from his sleep and shared his dream with the people around him and asked for what is necessary. It is understood that after the departure of Alexander from Smyrna, the Smyrna people had consulted the Temple of Apollo in Klaros (Ahmetbeyli-Menderes), one of the important prophecy centers of antiquity. As a matter of fact, Pausanias (VII.5.1) explains this situation with the following story; “Thereupon, the people of Izmir asked Klaros (Apollon) by sending envoys and asked his opinion about the situation and the god answered: Those who will live in Pagos beyond the Holy Meles will be three times, four times happier than before.” Thus, the city in Bayraklı was slowly abandoned after the prophecy was approved.

The lands captured by Aleskandros’ death were shared by his successors, Smyrna and its surroundings were briefly Kleitios and then BC. Antigonos Monophtalmos until 301 BC He remained under the control of Lysimakhos until 281. According to Strabon, the displacement of Smyrna was carried out by Antigonos Monophtalmos and Lysimakhos. Strabon (XIV.37) notes this as follows. “They were settled collectively in a city, first by Antigonos and later by Lysimakhos, and their cities are the most beautiful of the present cities.” The fact that the foundation of almost every Greek city was based on a hero and prophecy was accomplished even though it was a story by Pausanias (VII.5.1) long after the founding of Smyrna.

New Smyrna is also equipped with monumental architectural structures such as city walls, temples, theater, stadion and agora that are expected to be in cities like Ephesos, Knidos, Rhodos and other Greek cities that have moved to their new places. Regarding the first construction phase of the new Smyrna, the Hellenistic walls in Kadifekale, the acropolis of Smyrna, draw attention. The southern Hellenistic wall of the castle, which has been largely destroyed today, has been partially unearthed by excavations in recent years.

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